National Curriculum Literacy

You can use some of these guidelines to help inform your planning. Take from any year-group that will be best suited to your child and your topic.

I use these key points to start a mind map for ideas, then go onto thinking about activities that we can do to address these targets.

Year 1

​Word Reading

Pupils should be taught to:

 Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words

 Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes  (see phonics page for help with this)

 read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught

 read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word

 read words containing taught GPCs and –s, –es, –ing, –ed, –er and –est endings

 read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs

 read words with contractions [for example, I’m, I’ll, we’ll], and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s)

 read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words

 re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.

Reading – comprehension

 
Pupils should be taught to:

Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:  listening to and discussing a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently

 being encouraged to link what they read or hear read to their own experiences

 becoming very familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics

 recognising and joining in with predictable phrases

 learning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heart

 discussing word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known

 understand both the books they can already read accurately and fluently and those they listen to by:

 drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher

 checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading

 discussing the significance of the title and events

 making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done

 predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far

 participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say

 explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them.

Writing – transcription 

Spelling (See link below for spellings appendex 1)

Pupils should be taught to: 

spell:

 words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught

 common exception words

 the days of the week

name the letters of the alphabet:

 naming the letters of the alphabet in order

 using letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound  add prefixes and suffixes:

 using the spelling rule for adding –s or –es as the plural marker for nouns and the third person singular marker for verbs

 using the prefix un–

 using –ing, –ed, –er and –est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words [for example, helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest]

 apply simple spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1

 write from memory simple sentences dictated that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far.

Handwriting 


Pupils should be taught to:

 sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly

 begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place

 form capital letters

 form digits 0-9

 understand which letters belong to which handwriting ‘families’ (i.e. letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these.

Writing – composition 

Pupils should be taught to:

 write sentences by:

 saying out loud what they are going to write about

 composing a sentence orally before writing it

 sequencing sentences to form short narratives

 re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense

 discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils

 read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard.

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Year 2


Reading – word reading 



Pupils should be taught to:

 continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent

 read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes

 read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above

 read words containing common suffixes

 read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word

 read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered

 read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation

 re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading.


Reading – comprehension 


Pupils should be taught to:

 develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by:

 listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently

 discussing the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related

 becoming increasingly familiar with and retelling a wider range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales

 being introduced to non-fiction books that are structured in different ways

 recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry

 discussing and clarifying the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary

 discussing their favourite words and phrases

 continuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear

 understand both the books that they can already read accurately and fluently and those that they listen to by:

 drawing on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided

 checking that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading

 making inferences on the basis of what is being said and done

 answering and asking questions

 predicting what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far

 participate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say

 explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves.


Writing – transcription 


Spelling (see English Appendix 1)

Pupils should be taught to spell by:

 segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes, spelling many correctly

 learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with each spelling, including a few common homophones

 learning to spell common exception words

 learning to spell more words with contracted forms

 learning the possessive apostrophe (singular) [for example, the girl’s book]

 distinguishing between homophones and near-homophones

 add suffixes to spell longer words, including –ment, –ness, –ful, –less, –ly

 apply spelling rules and guidance, as listed in English Appendix 1 below.

 write from memory simple sentences dictated that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far.


Handwriting 


 form lower-case letters of the correct size relative to one another

 start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined

 write capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and to lower case letters

 use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.


Writing – composition 


Pupils should be taught to:

 develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by:

 writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)

 writing about real events

 writing poetry

 writing for different purposes

 consider what they are going to write before beginning by:

 planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about

 writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary

 encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence

 make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by:

 evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils

 re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form

 proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation [for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly]

 read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.


Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 


Pupils should be taught to develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 (will post soon) by:

 learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly (see English Appendix 2 below), including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular)  learn how to use:

 sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command

 expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]

 the present and past tenses correctly and consistently including the progressive form

 subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but)

 the grammar for year 2 in English Appendix 2

 some features of written Standard English

 use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 in discussing their writing.

Year 3 and 4


Reading – comprehension


 develop positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

 listening to and discussing a wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks

 reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes

 using dictionaries to check the meaning of words that they have read

 increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including fairy stories, myths and legends, and retelling some of these orally

 identifying themes and conventions in a wide range of books

 preparing poems and play scripts to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action

 discussing words and phrases that capture the reader’s interest and imagination

 recognising some different forms of poetry [for example, free verse, narrative poetry]

 understand what they read, in books they can read independently, by:

 checking that the text makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and explaining the meaning of words in context

 asking questions to improve their understanding of a text

 drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence

 predicting what might happen from details stated and implied

 identifying main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph and summarising these

 identifying how language, structure, and presentation contribute to meaning

 retrieve and record information from non-fiction

 participate in discussion about both books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say.


Writing – transcription

 
Spelling (see English Appendix 1) 

 use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them (English Appendix 1)

 spell further homophones

 spell words that are often misspelt (English Appendix 1)

 place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals [for example, girls’, boys’] and in words with irregular plurals [for example, children’s]

 use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary

 write from memory simple sentences, dictated, that include words and punctuation taught so far.


Handwriting


 use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left unjoined

 increase the legibility, consistency and quality of their handwriting [for example, by ensuring that the downstrokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch].


Writing – composition 

 plan their writing by:

 discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar

 discussing and recording ideas

 draft and write by:

 composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures (English Appendix 2)

 organising paragraphs around a theme

 in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot

 in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]

 evaluate and edit by:

 assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements

 proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences

 proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

 read aloud their own writing, to a group, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.



Writing – vocabulary, grammar and punctuation 

 develop their understanding of the concepts set out in English Appendix 2 by:

 extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although

 using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense

 choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

 using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause

 using fronted adverbials

 learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English Appendix 2

 indicate grammatical and other features by:

 using commas after fronted adverbials

 indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns

 using and punctuating direct speech

 use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.

Year 5 and 6

Reading – comprehension 

 maintain positive attitudes to reading and understanding of what they read by:

 continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks

 reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes

 increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions

 recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices

 identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing

 making comparisons within and across books

 learning a wider range of poetry by heart

 preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience

 understand what they read by:

 checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context

 asking questions to improve their understanding

 drawing inferences such as inferring characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence

 predicting what might happen from details stated and implied

 summarising the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas

 identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning

 discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader

 distinguish between statements of fact and opinion

 retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction  participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously

 explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary

 provide reasoned justifications for their views.

Writing – transcription 


Spelling (see English Appendix 1) 

 use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them

 spell some words with ‘silent’ letters [for example, knight, psalm, solemn]

 continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused

 use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in English Appendix 1  use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words

 use the first three or four letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary

 use a thesaurus.

Writing – handwriting and presentation


 write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by:

 choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters

 choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task.

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Remember to use these as a guide. Children will be at different stages across different year groups.